Termina no final do mês de Agosto o prazo para o envio de colaborações para o Video Vortex #9, os encontros sazonais sobre comunicação audiovisual na Web criados pelo Institute of Network Cultures sediado na Universidade de Amsterdão. A edição deste ano é organizada pelo Moving Image Lab e pelo Post-Media Lab e está subordinado ao tema Re:assemblies of Video. A conferência terá lugar na Universidade de Lüneburg entre os dia 28 de Fevereiro e 2 Março de 2013.
Acabo de enviar uma proposta para uma comunicação sobre um conjunto de cinco práticas redaccionais correntes do universo dos vídeos musicais (paródias, pastiches, colagens, diaporamas e séries videomusicais). Curiosamente, a inspiração para a mesma surgiu-me numa recente visita à exposição permanente do Museu Berardo, cujo colecção é, de facto, uma fonte inesgotável de prazer e reflexão. Deixo-vos de seguida o resumo da proposta.
Parodies, pastiches, mash-ups, slideshows and series: five online redactional practices in music videos
João Pedro da Costa
Back in 1986, Peter Wollen noticed that the definition of Walt Benjamin’s ‘‘age of reproduction’’ was being further extended in the electronic era: reproduction, pastiche and quotation, instead of being forms of textual parasitism, were becoming constitutive of media textuality (Wollen 1986: 169). Nicholas Bourriaud refined this postmodern assumption by observing that, since the early nineties, an ever increasing number of artworks have been created on the basis of preexisting works: more and more artists interpret, reproduce, re-exhibit, or use works made by others or available cultural products (Bourriaud 2005: 12). The so called “art of postproduction” was then conceptualized by the French author as an answer to the proliferating chaos of global culture in the information age, characterized by an increase in the supply and legitimation of media formats ignored or disdained in the past. This “culture of redaction”, a similar notion defined by the production of new material by the process of editing existing content (Hartley 2008: 112), has in fact become a key feature of today’s emerging digital media landscape. Its proliferation was caused by three main socio-technological developments or innovations: the abundance of source material on the Internet (Serazio 2008: 81); the growing availability of free and user-friendly software that facilitates media manipulation; and the rising of a participatory culture that blurs the traditional distinction between media producers and consumers (Jenkins 2006: 3) prompted by the emergence of social media: YouTube, for instance, works as a creative site because it supports the participatory culture of the larger Web environment and its dominant mode of cultural collaboration (Strangelove 2010: 187).
This paper seeks to approach on the aforementioned redactional practices of online video through a textual analysis of what is arguably today the most consumed and disseminated media genre on YouTube: music videos. Once the exclusive domain of television programmers, music videos are nowadays the chosen audio-visual genre of digital users and producers constantly looking for new content in order to quench their thirst for media consumption and production. More than a habitat, video sharing vortices as YouTube have become genuine and generous ecosystems for music video, turning it into an increasingly accessible, widespread and omnipresent digital medium reaching both global and niche audiences. In fact, music video continues to furiously do what it has done for decades: to look for all kinds of possible sources of inspirations, to try and do something new with those materials and thus inspire itself as well as other media forms (Keazor & Wubbena 2010: 19). Our approach will firstly focus on analyzing the drastic changes occurring in the production, distribution and consumption contexts of music videos caused by its digital convergence from music television to the social Web (Sibilla 2010); relating the redactional practices of digital music videos to the sampling, remixing and mashing-up cultures of popular music; and providing a critical distinction between the notions of “parody” and “pastiche” based on Gérard Genette’s theoretical definition of “hypertextuality” (Genette 1982). Finally, we will conceptualize and analyze a set of five music video genres based on online redactional practices: music video parodies, pastiches (including literal music videos), mash-ups, slideshows and series.
Bourriaud, Nicolas. 2002. Postproduction: Culture as Screenplay. How Art Reprograms the World. New York: Lukas & Sternberg.
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Sibilla, Gianni. 2010. It’s the end of music videos as we know them (but we feel fine). In Rewind, Play Fast Forward: The Past, Present and Future of the Music Video. Edited by Henry Keazor and Thorsten Wubbena. Bielefeld: Transcript. 225-232.
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